Cannot get Google Prompt on my Fairphone with /e/OS

I’ve been using my Google account for many months without much trouble, but today Google asked me to re-authenticate in one of my devices, and the only option it was giving me was a Google Prompt to my Fairphone:

Since Google Prompts cannot be disabled and Google Play Services is required, I guess my only option is to disable 2FA altogether. It’s unclear to me whether I really want to do this, or even if Google will allow me (since apparently I have no trusted devices left).

Is there any other way?